A total of 942 studies underwent title and abstract screening, 342 underwent full-text review, and 147 underwent data extraction by a single reviewer. The results revealed a body of literature that tends strongly toward analyses of stress and burnout of correctional staff, largely based on self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys. Those studies related to physical health were predominantly represented by topics of infectious disease. There were few or no studies examining exposures or outcomes related to diagnosable mental health conditions, musculoskeletal injury, environmental hazards, medical or mental health staff, immigration detention settings, or regarding incarcerated workers. There were very few studies that were experimental, longitudinal, or based on objective data.